2. D. W. Ball, Field Guide to Spectroscopy, SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA (2006). • Form B •  Form A – least bioavailable & least activity. • Pressing a small drop of liquid sample between plates produces a film of about 0.1mm thick. Identification of drugs ii) Mesomeric effect iii. U . • The first overtone of this is 1334.6cm-1 equal • Two bands at 1291 & 1235cm-1. 8. • Two types of prism: Several thermocouples connected in series make up a thermopile. Pyroelectric detectors are commonly used in FTIR spectrometers. • In dimethyl ether, the functional group is ether (-O-), whereas in ethanol the functional group is alcohol (-OH-). • It includes: • E.g. • The infrared region is divided into 3: There are mainly two types of sampling technique in IR. • Therefore, IR spectrum of a chemical substance is a finger print of a molecule for its identification. • Coupling between stretching & bending vibrations occurs. • Used in mid IR region. • Generally, the range of wavelengths allowed by a filter is relatively wide. a) Nernst glower b)  Mull technique * It causes lengthening of weakening of a bond leading in lowering of absorption frequency. viii) Quality control of pharmaceutical formulation : symmetrical stretching vibration of CO2 in Raman spectrum shows bands at 1337cm-1. c) Pressed pellet technique:- * Samples of the same substance shows shift in absorption bands as it pass from solid to gases & hence the samples of different phases have to be treated differently in IR spectroscopy. Thermocouple They are small, and typically painted black to better absorb radiation. 3. • It is electrical resistance thermometer which can detect & measure feeble thermal radiation. xii) Can be used to characterize samples in solid states’ water content measurement If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. d) Solids run in solution. Infrared spectroscopy has been highly successful for applications in both organic and inorganic chemistry. 10. • A vibration of large amplitude produced by a relatively small vibration • Criteria: sample & reference must be tested in identical conditions like physical state, temperature, solvent, etc. b. Bolometers- • They convert polychromatic light into monochromatic light • An isolated C-H bond has only one stretching vibrational frequency whereas methylene group shows 2 stretching vibrations- symmetrical & asymmetrical Sampling of liquid: SAMPLE HANDLING Incandescent lamp how much temperature is  Required to produce IR radiation ? radiation. The gases expand on heating and this in turn leads to the movement of a diaphragm just like in pneumatic sensors. they swing back & forth along the central atom. * As nitrogen atom is less electronegative than oxygen atom, the electron pair on nitrogen atom in amide is more labile & participates more in conjugation. • Intramolecular hydrogen bonding remains unaffected on dilution & as a result the absorption band also remains unaffected where as in intermolecular, bonds on dilution & as a result there is decrease in bonded O-H absorption. f) Tungsten lamp • Consists of cylinder of rare earth oxides formed into a cylinder of diameter 1-2mm length approx. light having a longer wavelength & a lower frequency than visible light), which results in vibrational transitions • The potential difference (voltage) between the junctions changes according to the difference in temperature between the junctions. Interaction can also take place b between fundamental vibrations & overtones or combination tone vibration s & such interactions are known as Fermi Resonance. a. So IR spectroscopy fails to distinguish between enantiomers. • Hot junction is generally blackened to improve its heat absorbing capacity. • In trans isomers no (zero) dipole occur, so no peak is observed but in case of cis, dipole moment occur, so peak is formed at 1580cm-1. • This is made from a single crystalline wafer of pyroelectric material (deuterium triglycine sulphate) sandwiched between two electrodes which are IR transparent. e) Electronic effects i. •  E.g. The 2 bonding vibrations are equivalent & absorb at the same frequency of 667.3cm-1. • For interaction to occur, the vibrations must be of same symmetry species. This method is used for qualitative analysis but not quantitative analysis. • Its resistance changes due to increase in temperature when IR radiation falls on it. • The electrical resistance increases approx. Principle : Other Applications: i. Wagging: A pyroelectric detector is composed of a noncentrosymmetrical crystal • For a high sensitivity a Hg cadmium telluride (MCT) detector is used cooled by liquid N24. Disadvantages of a thermopile: When it is heating at 1100c. • Other compounds identified are Ethambutol, Ibuprofen Cholecalciferol , and Disodium EDTA. ii. • Material should be thermally sensitive. Since potential differences are temperature-dependent (called the Seebeck effect), temperature values or changes in temperatures can be determined by calibration. • More complex molecules have more than one bonds & different types of vibrations may occur. vii) To determination of raw materials. 1. • Detectors are used to measure the intensity of unabsorbed infrared radiation.


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